Toyota 2UR engine has two variants, the highly reactive 2UR-FSE, and the sporty 2UR-GSE. Let us discuss their specifications, engine design, power, issues, problems, the overall impact on the industry, and understand what makes up the Toyota 2UR engine.
Toyota 2UR Engine is a member of the UR engine family, which Toyota produced in early 2006. It has become a replacement for the legendary UZ family, but both are great powerplants to suit your car with.
UR engines have been produced in 4.6 L, 5.0 L, and the largest 5.7 L displacement versions.
Engine Specifications and Design:
- Production Run: 2007 – Present (2UR-FSE) and 2008 – Present (2UR-GSE)
- Cylinder Head Material: Aluminum
- Cylinder Block Material: Die-cast Aluminum
- Configuration: V8
- Bore: 94 mm
- Stroke: 89.5 mm
- Valvetrain: DOHC 4 Valves Per Cylinder chain-driven
- Displacement: 5.0 L (4,969 cc)
- Compression Ratio: 11.8
- Weight: 520 lbs.
- Max HP: 400 HP at 6,400 RPM (2UR-FSE) and 471 HP at 6,600 RPM (2UR-GSE)
- Max Torque: 384 lb-ft at 4,000 RPM (2UR-FSE) and 391 lb-ft at 4,800 RPM (2UR-GSE)
First is the 2UR-FSE, a development of the 1UR-FSE V8 engine; and notable for its ability to shut the vehicle down while stationary to reduce fuel consumption.
The naturally-aspirated 2UR-FSE has a D-4S gasoline direct injection, made with die-cast Aluminum alloy block, a lightweight material, with an 89.5 mm stroke, 4 mm bore, and a 21 mm cylinder bank offset. It still used the ‘V’ arrangement with a 90-degree bank angle. Lexus vehicles did undergo meticulous detail work through the computer-aided design analysis (CAD) to maximize rigidity in the oil pan structures and cylinder block. CAD analysis includes thermal deformation data from a running plant to be analyzed.
Inside the block, 2UR-FSE has spiny-type cast-iron cylinder liners designed for better adhesion between the Aluminum block and liners through their large casting exteriors and irregular surfaces. This kind of manufacturing reduces the heat deformation of the bores and improves heat dissipation. Another component within the block is the cross-hatched machining marks for the internal bore walls of the Aluminum cylinder block, which are optimized at the 30-degree spot. This minimizes the vibration caused by transmission. Moreover, Lexus uses a three-dimensional measuring device for inner cylinder walls to ensure that the piston and cylinder lining gap met the design variables throughout the stroke cycle.
Before assembly, 2UR-FSE engine block and cylinder heads were tested using an X-ray inspection device and a CT scan. This process is essential as they determine if cavity bubbles within the castings can cushion deformed metal under high temperatures.
Toyota 2UR-FSE engine has a steel forged crankshaft with five main bearing journals and six balance weights. Friction points, piston pins, and every area of the crankshaft are polished to a top-of-the-line mirror finish to reduce friction and optimize rotational due to its smoother surface. It has also forged connecting rods with Aluminum bearings coated with resin. Knock pins are used at the jointing surfaces of the bearing caps to minimize bearing cap movements or to shift, especially during assembly. Moreover, connecting rods are equipped with plastic region tightening bolts.
The Bearing lining wall surface is coated with resin to improve seizure and wear resistance; crankshaft bearings are made of Aluminum alloy. Crankshaft bearing caps have four plastic region tightening bolts that Toyota imposed a lateral tightening to secure the journals and improve reliability; bolts are of different sizes in the inner and outer sides.
Lexus developed a high-pressure nozzle that is specifically made to reach oil delivery passages such as the crankshaft lubrication holes. This nozzle sprays a liquid with fine alumina particles. An application of this in a high-pressure situation reduces the resistance for oil flow and removes burrs for smoother lubrication.
The 2UR-FSE has an Aluminum cylinder head, magnesium alloy cylinder covers, and Aluminum pistons. The cylinder head is mounted on a three-layer steel-laminate type head gasket. Toyota used a shim about the cylinder of each bore gasket to improve sealing and durability; to add, the gasket surface is coated with heat-resistant fluoro rubber.
Its magnesium cylinder head covers have better ventilation inside the engine due to fresh air coming in drawn from the right and left bank cylinder head covers, which also improves the resistance of oil to deterioration. It also has an oil delivery tube included for easy lubrication of sliding components of the valve rocker arms.
Like its UR family brother, 1UR, 2UR-FSE integrated a new cooling technique called Partial Head Pre-cooling; this process reduces mechanical friction losses and bore deformation. This operation is when a radiator coolant is fed into the cylinder head to cool the outer boundary of the combustion chamber. The coolant from the exhaust side was fed and circulated through the water jackets for an even heat distribution.
2UR-FSE has a hollow double-overhead camshaft with four valves per cylinder banks – two intake and two exhaust, actuated by roller rocker arms added with built-in needle bearings. This needle bearing reduces the friction between the valve rocker arms and the cams. Also, the camshafts have a dual-VVT-i system and used a separate, primary timing chain for intake camshafts. The intake camshaft also drives a secondary chain that is connected to the exhaust camshaft.
The pistons are cooled by four-oil jets in the block, and the piston skirts are coated with resin to reduce friction and strengthen the wear resistance, while PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coating is applied to the compression and oil ring. There are holes near the pin bosses at the bottom of the piston head to reduce weight and a taper squish shape piston head.
Toyota 2UR-FSE was solely made for Lexus XF40 LS 600hL and Toyota Century.
2UR-GSE is the close relative of the 2UR-FSE but is more closely related to the 1UR-FSE engine. 2UR-GSE is more of a sporty application than the 2UR-FSE as it undergoes extensive changes parallel to performance-based outputs.
The revisions include:
- Higher lift camshafts.
- High-flow intake ports.
- The wider valve angle.
- Larger valve faces.
Yamaha also developed the 2UR-GSE’s high-flow cylinder heads, titanium intake valves, and dual-length intake. It also has a D-4S gasoline direct injection and port, Dual VVT-iE intake camshaft actuation, and a 7,300 RPM redline. 2UR-GSE appeared in numerous Lexus vehicles such as IS F, RC F, GS, F, and IS 500.
As for the block, 2UR-GSE is almost identical to the 2UR-FSE but with improved internal components, which include: new connecting rods with new bearing materials; new piston and piston rings; new intake and exhaust valvetrains; new crack pin diameter, and reduced crank counter Wifght size and big-end bearing for lower reciprocating weight.
The 2UR-GSE also switches to an Atkinson cycle for better fuel economy, especially while cruising speed or mid-level RPM range. In addition, since the compression stroke is shortened and expansion stroke is lengthened, it used a smaller portion of the anticipated compression stroke to compress the incoming air, which Otto cycles used to take in more, to have higher thermal efficiency. This is attained by keeping the inlet valves open during the first stage of the compression stroke to allow a reverse flow in the intake air intake manifold. This allows an increase in throttle valve opening in part-load conditions that reduces the pumping losses and intake manifold vacuum.
2UR-GSE appeared in 2007 – 2014 Lexus IS F, 2015 – Present Lexus RC F, 2015 – 2020 Lexus GS F, 2017 – Present Lexus LC 500, and 2022 Lexus IS 500 f-Sport Performance.
Engine Upgrades, Tuning, and Modifications:
2UR-Engines are well-built and are modified to suit sporty applications. This is where 2UR-GSE appears in the scene. They are developed for such conditions and are curtailed to produce such power without damaging the engine.
But, if you are still unsatisfied and uncontented, you can tune the ECU, and that can give you around 30- 40 horses, at maximum.
Problems Surrounding 2UR Engines:
Just like any other engines, 2UR engines are not immune to issues and problems. SO this list may come in handy when trying to figure out the 2UR engine’s problem and a heads-up caution.
2UR is closely relative to the 1GR engines, so they share most of the problems.
First is the overheat occurrence since there are reports that some motors, particularly 2GR-FEs, suffered from blown head gaskets; the head gasket conceals the engine block and cylinder heads. If gaskets are faulty, seals for the cylinders and oil, coolant leaks might be affected. Misfires, coolant loss, and white smoke coming from the exhaust are some things that might indicate this issue.
The one mentioned above is maybe due to Water Pump Problems. This is like the intro of the head gasket problem; the lack of coolant flow can, indeed, lead to overheating and escalating to head gasket problems. Water pumps are vital parts of the engine as they provide the cooling process of the machine. With that, they are highly subjected to wear and tear with years of use and improper maintenance. You might need to replace the water pump if you can see coolant stains or actual coolant leaks near the drain holes. This might appear at around 150,000 miles.
2UR engine are highly reliable and can suit different applications based on your liking. Its large displacement will not underwhelm your power satisfaction and will always become a competitor in terms of power with its V8 configuration. Though it has some problems imposed on some areas, it still remained as one of the most reliable engines in our generation. With proper maintenance and care this engine can serve up until a lifetime.
I hope that this simple engine guide helped you understand the 2UR engine’s design, power, torque, aftermarket support, issues, and problems.