Toyota ZZ: Everything You Need to Know | Specs and More

If you’re a Toyota enthusiast, you may have heard of the Toyota AZ engine. Toyota designed the AZ for great fuel economy, and it’s still in production today. But, unlike the AZ engine family, Toyota built the ZZ engine family for excellent performance. As a whole, the ZZ engine family includes a few different variants, each with its own pros and cons.

The ZZ engine family was the first four-cylinder engine family from Toyota to use both an aluminum block and an aluminum cylinder head, which saves a ton of weight. Their previous performance engine family, the 4A engine family, used a cast-iron block design. The ZZ engines are so good that Lotus used them in their Elise. While the Elise might not be your typical “supercar,” it’s still a testament to how great the ZZ engine family is.

Additional Toyota ZZ info on Wikipedia. If there’s anything you think we missed in this guide, drop a comment down below, and we’ll get it updated!

1ZZ-FE: Engine Basics and Specs

The Toyota 1ZZ-FE is rather obviously the first engine in the Toyota ZZ family. It’s a 1.8L with a 79mm bore, 91.5mm stroke, and a 10:1 compression. You can tell from those specifications alone that this engine is fairly torquey, thanks to the long stroke. Unfortunately, a long stroke can make it much more difficult to create high RPM performance, but the large amounts of torque help cover that up. Thanks to the high 10:1 compression ratio, the 1ZZ also provides great efficiency.

This engine features technologies such as multipoint fuel injection, VVT-i, forged connecting rods, and an optional supercharger for some models. The only models that received the TRD Supercharger kit were the Corolla, Matrix, and Pontiac Vibe. You can still find some of these superchargers used on eBay, but they’re getting harder to find by the day.

Toyota increased power output on the later versions of this engine through ECU tuning and a lightweight rotating assembly. Some versions of this engine are specifically designed to run on E100, which is a popular fuel in some South American countries like Brazil. For the most part, though, this engine is designed to run on standard quality gasoline.

  • Production Run: 1998 – 2007
  • Cylinder Block Material: Aluminum
  • Cylinder Head Material: Aluminum
  • Valvetrain: Dual Over Head Cams – Four Valve per Cylinder
  • Stroke: 91.5mm
  • Bore: 79mm
  • Compression Ratio: 10:1
  • Horsepower: 120 hp, 143 hp
  • Torque: 122 lb-ft, 126 lb-ft

It’s worth mentioning that while total horsepower isn’t particularly high, it’s very well balanced with torque. Horsepower and torque are typically very unbalanced on small four-cylinder engines since most small engines focus on creating horsepower through a high redline. Because the 1ZZ uses a long stroke and a low redline, total horsepower is relatively low compared to something like a Honda B18C.

Cars That Came With the 1ZZ

The 1ZZ engine was equipped in various automobiles ranging from sedans, coupes, small SUVs, and mid-engined sports cars. Toyota put this engine in so many different vehicles because of its reliability and good performance, especially with the later ZZ engines. You’ll notice that most of these applications are fairly small. Their larger applications received larger engines with more horsepower and torque.

  • Toyota Allion
  • Toyota Avensis
  • Toyota Caldina
  • Toyota Celica GT
  • Toyota Corolla
  • Toyota Isis
  • Toyota Matrix XR
  • Toyota MR2 Spyder
  • Toyota Opa
  • Toyota Premio
  • Toyota RAV4
  • Toyota Wish
  • Chevy Prizm
  • Pontiac Vibe
  • Lotus Elise

1ZZ: Known Problems

Just like the 2AZ engine, the 1ZZ does have a couple of known issues. The main being excessive oil consumption which many Toyota four cylinders are known for. The main components that cause this oil burning issue are the piston rings just like 2AZ, and the valve stem seals.

This issue was cured in the 2003+ versions of the 1ZZ. Other than the oil consumption, the 1ZZ is a pretty reliable little engine, according to owners online.

1ZZ: Tuning Potential

The first version of the ZZ engine, the 1ZZ, was really designed for economy much more than performance. With a turbo kit or Rotrex supercharger kit, you can get around 230 horsepower out of the little 1.8L.

Anything past 230hp, and you’ll probably need a built bottom end because the 1ZZ bottom end isn’t very strong. Most Toyota enthusiasts won’t typically modify a 1ZZ but would rather swap in the 2ZZ, which is much more performance-oriented in the first place.

2ZZ-GE: Engine Basics and Specs

The 2ZZ is, rather obviously, the second engine in the Toyota family and remained as a 1.8L just like the 1ZZ. This new engine retained the all-aluminum block and head to save weight, but with the addition of many performance-oriented changes.

The biggest performance-oriented change was a decrease in the stroke by 6.5mm and an increase in the bore by 3mm. Other performance features include the addition of VVTL-i and forged steel connecting rods. This allows the 2ZZ to rev higher than the 1ZZ, and when combined with the increased compression ratio, the 2ZZ ultimately makes more power.

Toyota asked Yamaha to help with the development of the 2ZZ, specifically for reliability at high RPMs and peak power. The addition of VVTL-i was a big contributor to achieving such horsepower. It works like Honda’s VTEC system by using multiple camshaft profiles: one for low RPM and one for high RPM.

Lotus added a supercharger to the 2ZZ in their Exile 240R, which increased power to an impressive 240 horsepower. The standard supercharged Exige produced 225 horsepower.

  • Production Run: 1999 – Current
  • Cylinder Block Material: Aluminum
  • Cylinder Head Material: Aluminum
  • Valvetrain: Dual Over Head Cams – Four Valve per Cylinder
  • Stroke: 85mm
  • Bore: 82mm
  • Compression Ratio: 11.5:1
  • Horsepower: 164 hp, 182 hp, 192 hp, 221 hp, 243 hp, 260 hp
  • Torque: 125 lb-ft, 130 lb-ft, 133 lb-ft, 159 lb-ft, 170 lb-ft, 174 lb-ft

Cars That Came With the 2ZZ-GE

The 2ZZ is a performance-oriented engine, and as such, it found its way into many “performance” Toyota vehicles. I put performance in quotes because the vehicles that use this engine aren’t exactly fast or interesting, excluding the Lotus Exige.

  • Toyota Celica GT-S
  • Toyota Corolla XRS
  • Toyota Matrix XRS
  • Pontiac Vibe GT
  • Lotus Elise
  • Lotus Exige
  • Lotus 2-Eleven

2ZZ-GE: Known Problems

Previous Toyota four-cylinders we’re plagued with oil consumption issues, including the 1ZZ. The 2ZZ, however, isn’t really known for this issue. The main issue that has plagued the 2ZZ is oil pump failure. This issue is typically caused by accidental over-revving whilst downshifting.

This can cause a moment of oil pressure loss which will destroy the engine. Sometimes the oil pump won’t just drop pressure but completely explode, causing even more issues. This problem is pretty rare and is almost always caused by the driver accidentally over-revving the engine.

2ZZ-GE: Tuning Potential

Unlike the 1ZZ, Toyota designed the 2ZZ-GE for extremely high-performance applications, and thanks to Yamaha’s help with the 2ZZ, it massively outperforms the 1ZZ. From the factory, most 2ZZ-GE equipped vehicles make around 180 horsepower, which is pretty good considering it’s a naturally aspirated 1.8L engine. For reference, that’s around 100hp/liter, something that Honda has been long praised for with their small performance engines.

Many enthusiasts are claimed around 200whp (220-230 horsepower) with bolt-on aftermarket parts and a good tune. When big changes are introduced, such as aftermarket camshafts or cylinder head porting, over 240 horsepower can be reached completely naturally aspirated.

When you add a supercharger to the 2ZZ-GE, the potential power output skyrockets compared to a naturally aspirated 2ZZ. According to most tuners, the stock engine internals are unfortunately limited to around 300 horsepower. If you upgrade your 2ZZ with forged internals and an upgraded supercharger, it’s capable of around 400 horsepower.

That kind of power in a lightweight Toyota vehicle would be absolutely mental and would easily stomp almost any car on the road.

24 thoughts on “Toyota ZZ: Everything You Need to Know | Specs and More”

  1. So…I knew 1 ZZ-FE family s mods was from 2005 .. mmmh.. Are you sure from 2003? Could you link me something to confirm? thanks lot. Erik

  2. I swapped a 1zz in a 2004 corolla le. The 2zz has cold air intake, NO cat. converter, 3″ straight exaust off a no air port after market header. Has a 6 speed Helical LSD 4.5:1 ratio short shifter. CRYO’d Billet oil pump gear set. Full under carriage stiffeners front to rear. Power steering delete kit. All suspension bushings are neoprene (Energy). MWR 210 fuel pump. All pulley’s are under driven except the crank of course. 170′ TRD thermostat. Mishimoto solid aluminum radiator with high PSI cap. Forged steel lightened flywheel with a carbon/ Kevlar staged clutch kit. Solid motor mounts. Upgraded drive axles. Was one of the first swaps with Matt’s help at MWR. All stock suspension height a real sleeper…

  3. I have a 2007 Matrix XR. As of today, 10/02/2018, it has a little less than 28,000 miles on it. That is not a typo 28,000… I got it from my mom who bought it new and put 16,000 mi on it up until last July(2017). In June of this year I started to hear a slow knocking. I thought, at first, that I had picked up a rock in one of my tires but the noise persisted while parked and idling. At first startup (cold) the sound seems to come from near the A/C compressor. but after the engine has warmed up it is more difficult to pin down the sound’s origin. It seems almost impossible that it would be a rod knocking sound because of the low miles so I hesitate to take it to a repair shop for fear of getting…”..bummer, man, it’s your signal fluid. But I can fix that for less that $1,000.00″…kind of diagnosis. Changing oil a couple of times and Sea Foam since June hasn’t helped. I know it’s a long shot but can anyone give me some advise so I can pinpoint the problem. Thanks, Charlie

  4. i had 1zz engine RAV4 started smoking blue colour and is pulling with difficult what could be the problem

  5. Charles 2007 Matrix XR, try pulling a COP plug off each cylinder while its running while making that sound, one at a time and see if you hear a change, i.e. knocking has stopped. If it does stop, then that may be the cylinder, then it may be a failed rod bearing. Just because it has low milage, that’s no guarantee that it can’t be a rod bearing. Oil starvation on fast sharp turns eats up the inner workings of our engines. This engine has an oil scrapper/baffle below the crank, but some 2ZZ oil pans do not have a baffle in the pan to keep the oil by the oil pick up which causes oil starvation, but Toyota put them in the 1ZZ Engine, I wish I knew why. My 2ZZ engine’s pan was like a cereal bowl, no baffle. So i bought an aftermarket oil pan with a baffle to keep the oil in it’s place. Moroso makes a super nice one for the 2ZZ, but it’s $$$$. Check to see if you have oil in the spark plug tubes, that may also cause a misfire. I pulled mine out and re-sealed them, it takes a special tool for that. Install an oil catch can to help prevent carbon build up in the engine, check your PCV, may sure it’s clean. Good luck!!

  6. My Runx Toyota is of good performance 2Zz but consumes alot if fuel…thought it had a problem?100km for usd 30?advise

  7. My 1zz engine knocked and i took the conrod and crank shaft to machine shop so i want to know the side effects after i attach my engen

  8. I’d like to know the torque specs for the plastic intake manifold to the head and for the coil bolts and for the throttle body bolts to the manifold. Thanks.

  9. can i put a 1zz toyota bubble 2006 cylinder head on to a toyota avensis 2002 model engen UK without any mods

  10. my izz2007 Allion have a cold start problem where on the engine is the cold start valve / injector located

  11. Evening all.
    have Toyota Matrix 2003, with 1zz engine 1.8L. Unfortunately the engine knocked and went to buy another. but what I got was 4zz version.
    Will it work better off than 1zz?.
    Waiting for you kind reply Please.
    Thanks Sir.

  12. hello all, i have a toyota celica GTS 2000, 2zzge engine, can i swap the engine without any modifications ? plus can i install a supercharger on the 2zzge ? looking to hear from the experts, many thanks all

  13. I have a 2005 Matrix that needed the engine replaced. I bought what I thought was a 1ZZ-FE engine. When I went to install it, every thing fit perfect except one thing. Directly under the intake manifold there is, what appears to be, a cooling line. It comes out of the block, takes a 90 degree turn, goes horizontal (towards the front of the engine) for a bit, then goes down to the bottom of the engine and then heads toward the radiator. This was NOT on the original engine I removed. I have no where to connect this line. What do I do? If I knew what this connected to, I might be able to modify the piping.

  14. Are you saying 2001 Toyota Spacio 1zz is not good car in terms of fuel consumption? And what is its body made of; metallic or fibre?

  15. Hey there at engine blocks with 1ZZ while other are written as 1Zz. What is the difference in the two last z with the first being capital Z and the other being small z? Please assist.

  16. When ordering gasket set for my 05 Vibe FWD Auto 1.8 1zz motor, the parts rep needed to know if build date on the specs sticker located in driver door jam was on or after May 05 because of 1zz engine changes. not sure the exact differences but maybe thats the 1Zz vs the 1ZZ?

  17. I have 2003 toyota celica gts 1zz ef can i replace with 2zz gs motor have noted drive plate from 1zz engine will not attach to 2zz engine because crank bolt pattern is different drive plate from 2zz gs which will solve this problem at crank. will bolt pattern for torque converter fit torque converter from 1zz ef auto trans same year

  18. I’ve Purchased 2 each STD piston rings, 1st one was really a big gap. 2nd from Rock Auto is .007in bigger but closer to spec, you think i’ll have a huge blow by.


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