The new GD engine series debuted in 2015, replacing the KD engine series, Toyota’s most popular 4-cylinder diesel engine. The 1GD-FTV engine took the place of its predecessor, the 3.0L 1KD-FTV engine. The new 2.8-liter diesel engine was initially utilized in the Toyota LandCruiser Prado and then in other Toyota SUVs such as the Toyota Fortuner and Toyota Hilux.
What are Toyota 1GD-FTV 2.8D Engines?
The Toyota 1GD-FTV is a 2.8 L straight-4 common rail diesel engine equipped with some of the features commonly encountered in typical engines like a variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT), chain drive, and an intercooler.
The engine has 16 valves and a DOHC design. It has a compression ratio of 15.6:1 and produces 175 HP at 3,400 rpm and 332 lb-ft of torque at 1,600-2,400 rpm when connected to a 6-speed automated gearbox, depending on the target market and emission regulations.
The output of the manual transmission is still 175 HP and 310 lb-ft of torque, which does not differ from the automated ones.
The power and torque numbers were buffed in 2020. The prior power and torque production was increased to 201 HP at 3,400 rpm and 370 lb-ft at 1,600–2,800 rpm.
This 1GD-FTV engine was first used in the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado, the second generation Toyota Innova in some countries, the second generation Toyota Fortuner, eighth-generation Toyota Hilux, and fifth-generation Toyota HiAce.
Engine Specifications and Design:
- Production Run: 2015 – Present
- Cylinder Head Material: Aluminum
- Cylinder Block Material: Cast-iron
- Configuration: Inline 4
- Bore: 92.0 mm
- Stroke: 103.6 mm
- Valvetrain: DOHC four valves per cylinder
- Displacement: 2.8 L (2755 cc)
- Compression Ratio: 15.6
- Weight: 290 lbs.
- Maximum HP: 201 HP at 3,400 RPM
- Maximum Torque: 370 lb-ft at 1,600 – 2,400 RPM
The Toyota 1GD-FTV’s cylinder block is typical cast iron with no liners. The new engine, like the 1KD, has two counter-rotating balancing shafts. The balancing unit is housed in its own housing beneath the engine block and is powered by a chain from the crankshaft. To save additional costs, some engine variants do not have a balanced unit.
The cylinder head is constructed of aluminum alloy. There are four valves per cylinder -two for each intake and two for each exhaust side, for a total of 16 valves. The new cylinder head has improved intake airflow and combustion chamber shape. Two chain-driven camshafts are located on top of the head. The crankshaft is not directly connected to the camshafts.
Further, a sprocket on a high-pressure fuel pump drives the timing chain with the single-row roller chain that connects the crankshaft to the high-pressure pump. The valves are actuated and managed by roller rocker arms with hydraulic tappets.
The Toyota GD series of engines are outfitted with a Common Rail Direct Fuel Injection system. The pressure in the system stands between 5000 and 32000 psi. And that is due to the HP5S high-pressure pump, which is responsible for these excellent results. Denso manufactures every component of the fuel system.
On top of that, the Variable nozzle turbines (VNT), sometimes known as variable-geometry turbochargers (VGT), and air-to-air intercoolers were also installed to the 1GD engines.
To optimize the combustion process, the intake manifold features valves that close and open one of two intake ports for each cylinder. The throttle body is electronically controlled, and the throttle valve is powered by an electric motor.
The engine has a varying number of pollution reduction systems depending on the market area and emission requirements. Some countries and states have stringent criteria regarding these and laws that need to comply with.
The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) are all on the list. In comparison to its predecessor (1KD), the new engine was found to be 15% more fuel-efficient and produces 25% greater torque. Toyota estimates that the new engine’s thermal efficiency is 44 percent.
Electronically operated EGR valve using a DC motor and a non-contact position sensor (Hall effect). EGR cooler valve sends gas flow bypass radiator to minimize excessive cooling of exhaust gases at low load.
Under high-temperature exhaust gas conditions, DPF passive regeneration can be performed on its own.
However, as time passes, the amount of soot in the filter increases and its capacity decreases, prompting active regeneration. The control unit analyzes driving conditions to determine filter clogging and activates injectors, the exhaust injector, glow plugs, and controls engine speed. The temperature of the DPF material rises to 600-700°C, and the soot particles burn out.
The injection of urea solution was used to reduce NOx content in the exhaust gas for Euro 6 emission standards. After injecting the solution, the water vaporizes, and the urea hydrolyzes into isocyanic acid and ammonia.
Problems Surrounding Toyota 1GD-FTV Engine:
The early years of operation of the GD series, particularly the 1GD-FTV, revealed no serious concerns, albeit several particular failures should be highlighted. Furthermore, Toyota validated these flaws exceptionally quickly and disclosed them in their usual Technical Service Bulletin.
Some of these issues include:
1. DPF Clogging
Let’s start with the common one, the particle filter. Eventually, this component becomes clogged due to difficulties with auto-regeneration. However, since the spring of 2017, a more successful ECU calibration has been available; and in the summer of 2018, the manual regeneration button has been standard equipment. And eventually, in 2019, a separate kit is advised for everyone to install the manual regeneration button.
2. Power Loss and Other Errors
Ingress of dust into the intake duct downstream of the air filter. As a result, the MAF sensor became contaminated, resulting in power loss and other issues. Toyota is unaware of the flaw, but they somehow mentioned it in their TSB.
3. Excessive wear of some components
There are reports that the camshaft and rocker arm wear of the Toyota 1GD-FTV engine is excessive. Rough idling is a possible external symptom. It is recommended that camshafts be replaced and that all rockers be replaced with modified ones. There are two revisions of parts released in 2019.
4. Glow Plugs Malfunction
Glow plugs have also been reported to malfunction or be destroyed. It is recommended that the glow plugs be replaced with modified ones, that the ECU be reprogrammed, and that the combustion chamber be inspected for damage caused by broken plug tip fragments (also check turbine wheel and nozzle vanes)
Glow plugs are not the same as spark plugs. Glow plugs serve as a heating element in a diesel engine, incoming heating fuel, and air to promote efficient fuel combustion. The burning of gasoline starts your engine, allowing you to drive.
The 1GD-FTV is a modern and technologically advanced engine that offers diesel drivers many advantages over the previous model, such as better emission standards. It also performs smoothly with low noise levels for an exciting drive experience without sacrificing fuel efficiency.
Though it has some issues, as mentioned above, it does not negate the abilities and overall potential, and reliability of the engine. Toyota updated some of these incidents where there were problems and was able to succeed and satisfy the owner and the potential buyers alike.