In 1994, Toyota began producing the 3RZ-FE motor as a replacement for the 22R-E. Because it was designed for off-road and commercial vehicles, it had a considerable capacity for an inline-four engine.
Competing against a diverse lineup, this engine still survived amidst all that. How does this engine differ from them?
What are Toyota 3RZ Engines?
Toyota developed the 3RZ-FE, a 2.7-liter inline four-cylinder gasoline engine, from 1994 to 2004. Toyota Motor Corporation produced the 3RZ-FE engine at its Kamigo Plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, from 1994 to 2004.
It was primarily utilized in commercial trucks and four-wheel-drive vehicles such as Toyota Tacoma, T100, Land Cruiser Prado, and 4Runner to replace the well-known 22R-E. The engine was replaced with a new 2.7L engine, the 2TR-FE, after ten years of manufacturing.
Only rated at 150hp and 177 lb-ft of torque, the engine was over-engineered positively. The 3RZ internals, including a forged crank and forged rods, are incredibly sturdy despite the engine’s low power output. Aluminum pistons and cylinder heads are used, whereas the block is built of cast iron.
Engine Specifications and Design:
- Production Run: 1994 – 2004
- Cylinder Head Material: Aluminum
- Cylinder Block Material: Aluminum
- Configuration: Inline 4
- Bore: 95.0 mm
- Stroke: 95.0 mm
- Valvetrain: DOHC four valves per cylinder
- Displacement: 2.7 L (2,693 cc)
- Compression Ratio: 9.5
- Weight: 380 lbs.
- Maximum HP: 150 HP at 4,800 RPM
- Maximum Torque: 177 lb-ft at 4,000 RPM
A deep-skirt cast iron cylinder block is used in the 3RZ engine, as across all the RZ engines. Both the bore and stroke are 95.0 mm, which makes it a square machine.
A forged crankshaft with eight counterweights and a torsional damper pulley is used in the Toyota 3RZ-FE engine. On top of that, Carbon steel connecting rods are shot-peened and forged.
The Aluminum pistons are strengthened and have resin-coated skirts, which were also added to the engine.
Oil jets are inserted within the cylinder block to spray oil on the bottom of the pistons for further cooling. Two gear-driven balancing shafts are installed in the engine’s crankcase.
The cylinder head is composed of aluminum alloy, which allows for efficient cooling. The engine features four valves per cylinder and a dual overhead camshaft arrangement.
For the cylinder head of the 3RZ-FE engine, plastic region tightening bolts were utilized.
The intake camshaft is driven by a timing chain that has hydraulic tensioners and oil jets for lubrication. The exhaust cams are connected via clutches to the other side, then run through gears that engage at varying times during engine operation depending on what equipment you want your car in.
Each cylinder in the 3RZ-FE engine has four valves: two intakes and two exhausts. The intake valves have a diameter of 1.4764. At the same time, the exhaust valves have a diameter of 2008 in.
The duration of the intake is 230 degrees, while the exhaust is 224 degrees. Because this engine does not have hydraulic lifters, the valve clearances must be adjusted every 30,000 km (20,000 miles).
The intake manifold is made from lightweight, durable aluminum. It’s been explicitly designed to increase torque and has two intake runners per cylinder, so you can get all that power under your hood without sacrificing efficiency or control.
Further, the Electronic Spark Advance (ESA) ignition system uses sensors input by the ECM into its computer, determining the best time for firing up each cylinder. In this way, no wasted sparks are going everywhere because one engine was cold while another wasn’t waiting at precisely timed intervals before being turned on again.
The 3RZ-FE engine generated 150 HP of maximum horsepower at 4,800 rpm and 240 177 lb-ft of peak torque at 4,000 rpm.
Applications of the Toyota 3RZ-FE Engine:
- 1995 – 2004 Toyota Tacoma
- 1996 – 2000 Toyota 4Runner
- 1995 – 2002 Toyota Granvia
- 1994 – 1998 Toyota T100
- 1990 – 2004 Toyota Hiace
- 1995 – 2004 Toyota Hilux
- 2001 – 2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
- 1998 – 2002 Toyota Touring Hiace
- 1996 – 2004 Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Engine Tuning, Modifications, and Potential
It is not the greatest idea to build a good high RPM naturally aspirated engine based on the 3RZ. A cold air intake, short intake manifold, large throttle body, header, and performance exhaust system are all available for purchase.
These performance enhancements will give you around 180 HP after ECU tuning. Isn’t it a little underwhelming? You may go even farther and purchase ITB, cams, and other components, but building a 3RZ turbo is the more cost-effective alternative.
Purchase a 3RZ turbo kit with a Garrett T3/T04B turbocharger. It is fitted on factory internals and produces an extra 100 horsepower at a maximum boost pressure of 7 psi.
However, using forged pistons and ARP head studs to create a more robust design is a poor idea. It is preferable to get a 2UZ engine and change it out.
Problems Surrounding the Toyota 3RZ Engine:
The 3RZ is a reliable engine that has been proven to survive even the most challenging journeys. It’s not uncommon for these engines to make it through 2-3 years of use before needing some maintenance or repair.
Still, if you take care of your vehicle and avoid abusive situations, the chances are that they’ll last indefinitely.
Squeaking Serpentine Belt
A serpentine belt is a long rubber belt that transmits power from one engine system to another. The serpentine belt distributes power to the power steering pump, alternator, air conditioning compressor, and water pump through pulleys and a tensioner.
The crankshaft is connected to a pulley that provides rotational power. The pulley that rotates the belt and drives the other systems revolves with the crankshaft.
The serpentine belt on the 3RZ-FE engine is reported to start squeaking at 80,000 to 100,000 miles. While a squeaky serpentine belt isn’t always a concern, it does signal that the serpentine belt is about to wear out.
As a result, if the belt starts squeaking, it’s time to replace it.
Serpentine belts are made of rubber and feature grooves. The friction on them wears down with time, causing the fit to loosen. The squeak is caused by the looseness of the belt, which allows it to slip.
A faulty pulley or tensioner might potentially be the source of the squeak. Fortunately, with the 3RZ, the squeak is almost often caused by the belt.
Balance Shaft Bearing Failure
Inline-4 engines commonly employ balance shafts. The system consists of two shafts, each of which is equipped with weights. After that, the shafts rotate in opposite directions at double the engine’s speed.
They function in a very complex manner, but in essence, the force created by the rotation of the shafts cancels out the engine’s vibration.
Bearings are used on the balance shaft in assisting friction reduction and guarantee that the balance shafts revolve correctly. Bearing failure appears to be more likely in 3RZ-FEs marketed in South America.
While this does not appear to be as widespread in US markets, it has happened in a few instances. At the very least, a balancing shaft removal kit is manufactured by one business.
Timing Chain Failure
Instead of using a timing belt, the 3RZ engine uses a timing chain. Timing chains use a series of gears connected by a chain to open and close the exhaust valves. A pair of gears on the front of the engine block links the timing chain to the cam and crank.
The chain is protected by a timing cover, which also offers oil lubrication.
The 3RZ-FE contains timing guides and tensioners in addition to the chain itself. The chains are kept from slipping off the gears by the guides. Tensioners employ springs to keep the chain tight.
Because the tensioner in this Toyota engine is hydraulically controlled by oil pressure, it will cease operating if the oil pressure drops.
Timing chain failure on the 3RZ is more of a maintenance issue than a prevalent problem. Toyota states that the chain should last 150,000 miles before needing to be changed. If you’ve driven over 100,000 miles, we recommend checking the chain.
Because chains are constructed of metal, they stretch naturally over time due to continual expansion and contraction caused by heat cycles. The chain may become loose and jump gears as a result of this straining.
When the timing chain skips gears, the timing of the entire engine is thrown off, resulting in misfires, poor performance, and potentially catastrophic engine damage.
Faulty Water Pump
The water pumps in the engine are in charge of circulating coolant throughout the engine. Because the pump is subjected to high pressures, its internal components are susceptible to regular wear and tear and degradation.
The water pump 3RZ-FE is belt-driven, which means the serpentine belt power it. While this increases the longevity of the system, the interior components are still susceptible to wear.
A weep hole, also known as a vent hole, is found in water pumps. To prevent cross-contamination of these systems, the weep hole enables coolant or oil to leak away.
The moment you start to notice that your engine is leaking, it’s time for a replacement.
A lousy oil seal will cause liquid seepage from the hole in its place when pressure builds up due to high-performance driving or hard acceleration.
While water pump failures can be caused by aging components wearing out over time, it also gradually weakens the engine performance until nothing holds them together anymore – causing them all at once into pieces.
The Toyota 3RZ-FE engine is considered one of the most reliable produced by Toyota and equipped with a minimum electronics package. This solid yet simple design makes for easy maintenance and does not require tedious and meticulous tasks.
Also, don’t overlook the valve adjustment; else, the engine’s performance may suffer.
The biggest downside of this engine is that it produces very little power and consumes a lot of gasoline. The typical engine life of the 3RZ-FE engine is more than 250,000 miles when properly maintained.